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Tip of the Week No. 244 – 04/27/09 – Anchorage Points


Engineers look for the long-term reliability of proposed anchorage points and for their use in unforeseen ways.
They are likely to to want to over-engineer for this reason. Therefore, where anchorage-point capacity is necessarily below 5,000 pounds for the vertical lifeline’s anticipated use, such as on antennas, order pickers, wood roof ridges and many other places, engineers must know the criteria for the fall equipment to be used.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 206.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No.219 – 09/15/08 – Lifelines


Temporary Anchorage Points:
Temporary anchorage points should be modeled and approved by a registered Professional Engineer.
Railings should not be used as anchor points without engineering verification.
Lifelines should not be attached to parapet wall clamps unless tied back to an acceptable anchorage point.
Lifelines with or without parapet wall clamps should be in line with the point of suspension when practical, but not more than 10 ft. horizontally, or more than 25 degrees offset.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 213.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 213 – 07/14/08 – Tripods


A single tripod may be used for both vertical-entry access support and a fall arrest lifeline anchorage. Tripod attachments must be reasonabley independent of each other or, without a recognized failure mode, based upon the opinion of a Qualified Person.
Note that “reasonably independent” means that no recognized hazard exists for that situation where both loadline and lifeline could fail simultaneously.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 275.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 196 – 02/04/08 – Free Falls


A short fall allows a reasonable self-recovery to a walking/working surface.
Free falls should not exceed 2 feet. Anchorage-point height must be above the D-ring (fall arrest attachment point) and next to the worker at all times, even within a changing work area like a construction site.
Scenarios for potentially serious line abrasion and collisions during a fall ae part of the employer’s analysis, required in each special application.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 208.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 174 – 08/27/07 – Anchorage Points.


A short fall allows a reasonable self-recovery to a walking/working surface. Free falls should not exceed 2 feet.
Anchorage-point height must be above the D-ring (fall arrest attachment point) and next to the worker at all times, even within a changing work area like a construction site.
Scenarios for potentially serious line abrasion and collisions during a fall are part of the employer’s analysis, required in each special application.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 162 – 05/21/07 – Rooftop Anchorages


Wrapping lifelines around a rooftop structure – such as a pipe or air-conditioner compressor, using it as a form of rigid block or bollard – continues to be a common anchorage practice.
Safety would be enhanced by changing to a more advanced system of permanent, well-identified roof eyebolts or eyepads, locking snaphooks and eye-spliced rope lifelines for minimum adequacy and reliability.
Horizontal lifelines with shock absorbers are increasing in popularity for roof work.
In particular, tie-off achieved by wrapping a lanyard or lifeline around an angle iron or girder is not a good practice because, unlike a smooth dockside bollard, structural steel had edges that may be sharp enough to cut the lanyard of an unwitting user in the event of a fall.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 360.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 153- 03/19/07 – Anchorage Points


Anchorage points are the connections for both vertical and horizontal systems. The may be as simple as a D-ring or eyebolt mounted at an appropriate location.
Alternatively, they can be subsystems such as posts, brackets, trolleys and other mobile devices. They can support lifelines, nets, guardrails and stair rails.
They are designed for anticipated static and dynamic forces during a fall.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 201.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 152 – 03/12/07 – Snaphooks


The 1994 requirement for locking snaphooks in US industrial and construction applications has greatly benefitted fall arrest safety.
It has also highlighted another hazard called “burst-out”. Burst-out occurs when workers latch or perch snaphooks on eyebolts and structural shapes instead of properly inserting the snaphook. The result is that the weaker gate section becomes damaged through leverage during a fall.
The worst case is that the eyebolt can break due to leverage at the shoulder if it does not sit flat against a wall. The other consequence is that, if the eyebolt survives, the snaphook gate fails and the hook can disconnect from the eyebolt.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pages 186-187.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 146 – 01/29/07 – Anchor Strength


Anchor strength requirements should equal at least twice the dynamic load or the maximum arrest force the fall system can experience when tested in a worst-case, anticipated situation.
The equipment manufacturer’s installation instructions should minimally serve as a guide for the architect/engineer to follow. For roof tie-backs on commercial builidings, the anchorage points should offer at least the strength anticipated for feasible applications.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 58.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 134 – 11/06/06 – Anchor Points


Do not use guardrails as anchor points for fall arrest equipment, unless a structural engineer approves them for that specific purpose.
There must be an engineering drawing that indicates which specific locations are suitable as anchor points; what equipment, by rating, may be used; and how that equipment is to be attached.
In addition, the worker must be trained in recognition of approved anchor points.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 120.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 131 – 10/16/06 – Anchorage Points


If 1,200-pound anchorage points are designed for receiving a maximum of 600-pound forces, the engineer must require the use of fall equipment in the correct way.
Thus, a very close working relationship is needed among the safety director, the engineer and the purchasing department, especially for temporary systems.
When designing anchorage points for a construction project or repair job, the engineer should consider the topography of the worksite, how workers move around and preferabaly review videos or previous work methods.
If anchorage points are not strong enough, the engineer must help the safety director find a practical solution to the problem. The engineering solution must be carefully documented.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 207.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 126- 09/11/06 – Snap Hooks


All snap hooks must be fully closed onto hte matched anchorage point in a manner which does not stress the gate or reduce the strength of the hook.
Users should not rely on the sound of a hook closing; they should check it visually.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 162.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 122 – 07/31/06 – Anchor Points


Are the anchor points independent?
The independence of each anchor point from the main work-positioning anchor support is an important principle.
Where tripods or the building or structure itself are concerned, the question to address is what kind of failure would likely produce an injury? Anchor-point design should address all predictable scenarios.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 210.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 121 – 07/24/06 – Hitches/Knots around Anchor Points


Hitching around an object:
Fixing a rope around a sturdy object and back onto itself using two half-hitches (or other hitch) can be quick to tie, reliable to hold fast and easy to untie.
For a safety line, knotting may be the only anchorage method available to a worker, unless slings or tiebacks are provided by the employer and building manager.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 360.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 103 A – 02/13/06 – Roof Eyebolts


Eyebolts must permit attachment of snaphooks with 5/8 inch or 3/4 inch openings. The size of the eyebolt’s “eye” must be compatible with snaphook design to prevent accidental disengagement, known as roll-out.
Each eyebolt must be able to support a minimum of 5,000 pounds of static loading for a personal lifeline anchorage support in the direction of foreseeable dynamic loading.
Check load-line support requirements with the manufacturer of the scaffold or boatswain’s chair system or with the jurisdictional authority.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 109.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 23 A – 05/10/04 Anchorages


The needed anchor strength for a fall arrest system depends upon the potential forces on that point, along with an acceptable safety factor. In some cases, required strengths can be reduced to allow consideration of other potential anchor points; careful collaboration with the manufacturer on each specific system is imperative.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 202.
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Tip of the Week No. 27 A – 06/07/04 Anchorages


Anchorage: A secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices and that is independent of the means of supporting or suspending the employee (OSHA 1910.66, Appendix C). Also, a secure means of attachment to which the Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS) is connected (ANSI Z359.1-1992).

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 423.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 28 A – 06/14/04 Anchorages


No anchorage system must ever collapse due to inadequate design, meaning each point must be structurally sound and approved for its intended use. Anchorages can be modeled, tested and documented on engineering drawings.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 243.
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Tip of the Week No. 41 A- 09/27/04 Anchorage Labeling


Eyebolts and fixtures for roof anchors must be permanently labeled and tested for capacity. Periodic testing records should be kept by the building owner/manager.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 109.
How about ordering a copy for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 61 A – 03/07/05 – Clearance Requirements


Considerations in the selection of an anchor point minimally should include the minimum clearance requirements established above grade or any obstruction.
Each fall arrest system involves different total fall distances. For instance, a 600-foot section of vertical rope lifeline will have a considerable elongating stretch factor; this must be accounted for within the minimum clearance requirements, in addition to the free-fall and deceleration distances.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 203.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 66 A – 04/11/05 – Anchorage


Attachment to anchorages if tie-backs are not available:
Web or steel slings should be attached around a substantial structure, capable of supporting 6,000 pounds.
Steel snaphooks with locking design should be used to link the lifeline to the sling.
Lifelines should be terminated in a splice. Have various lengths of lifelines available for buildings of different heights.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 145.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 70 A – 05/09/05 – Tree Trimming


Anchorages should be crotched next to a live leader that is an adequate size to provide proper strength for trimming and topping vertical trees by professional arborists who always are attached with at least one line while moving.
A two-line system should be used so one can be moved while the other is in use.
Topping a tree requires extremely careful procedures to guard against whiplash catapulting a worker over the freshly cut main support.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 171.
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Tip of the Week No. 75 A – 06/20/05 – Anchorage Points


Estimation of the strength of structural members as possible anchorage points, particularly by workers in the field, should be avoided. One person may be able to “tug” up to twice his body weight, or 300-350 pounds.
Multiple person pulling on a line may or may not get multiple values.
The only way to field test an apparently stable anchor location is to pull it with a come-along andy dynamometer.
However, earlier predesignation and marking of anchorage points by structural engineers is best.
Sketched-out models for reference are the next best thing.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 61.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 116 – 06/12/06 – Anchorage Points


An anchorage point minimally should include the following:
An independence from the work surface whenever possible. For example, instead of attaching to the back rail of a two-point swing scaffold, attach a separate lifeline to a suitable, independent anchor point overhead on the structure.
Then, should a support cable fail, causing the swing scaffold to drop down, the worker will not be pulled down in potentially lethal swing fall.
Alternatively, to avoid scaffold failure, the scaffold requires its own cable or lifelines. This simplifies worker protection from over-reaching.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 201.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 107 – 04/10/06 – Cable System Anchorages


Cable systems used for anchorages around buildings or structures on the roof should be stainless steel with fittings attached according to the wire-rope manufacturer’s instructions or standard rigging handbooks.

All temporary and permanent rope terminations, including wire cables, should, at a minimum, meet OSHA standards for strength requirements.
Demonstration of this can be acheived by publishing diagrams for workers that illustrate the termination’s method of construction and verification of the proper setting or torque. No deviations are permitted without express, written approval of an officer of the contractor on a per-project application basis.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 108.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 100 – 02/13/06 – Eyebolts/Anchorages


In the case of an existing building, all building managers must be told in advance of the job that exterior work can be done more safely with properly positioned roof eyebolts.
The contractor can send a standardized proposal to the building manager after each contract is won, proposing that the eyebolt installation work be done at the same time as the maintenance contract for more economical results and more safety in the future.
Roof anchor design criteria: Eyebolts or fixtures for roof anchors must be engineered into the roof.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 109.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 98 – 01/30/06 – Anchorage Points


Vertical anchorage points should have 5,000 pounds of minimum static strength per person, except for retracting lifelines, which should have minimum static strength of 3,000 pounds.
For engineered systems, the anchorage should support a minimum of twice the MAF anticipated by the fall arrest equipment (obtainted from manufacturer’s data or by testing).
ANSI Z359.1 refers to 3,600 pounds as a minimum for standard fall arrest systems.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 233.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 72 – 06/13/05 – Anchorage Points


Anchorage points are the connection for both vertical and horizontal systems.
They may be as simple as a D-ring or eyebolt mounted at an appropriate location. Alternatively, they can subsystems such as posts, brackets, trolleys and other mobile devices.
They can support lifelines, nets, guardrails and stair rails. They are designed for anticipated static and dynamic forces during a fall.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 39 – 09/13/04. Arrest Anchors.


Ladder rungs or steps, and guardrails or railings of any kind, should not be used for fall arrest anchorages unless they are designed specifically for that purpose.
Steel members should be used for anchorage-point structures whenever possible.
Masonry fittings can be suitable when used with through-bolts and plate washers.
Expanded anchor bolts should be specified by a registered professional engineer.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 364.
How about ordering a copy for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 22 – 05/10/04. Anchorage points.


Anchorage points are the connections for both vertical and horizontal systems. They may be as simple as a D-ring or eyebolt mounted at an appropriate location. Alternatively, they can be subsystem such as posts, brackets, trolleys, and other mobile devices. They can support lifelines, nets, guardrails and stair rails. They are designed for anticipated static and dynamic forces during a fall.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 201.
How about ordering a copy of for yourself? Order online now.


Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition #13


Tip of the Week No. 241
Long overdue is the need for owners or building managers nationwide to foresee permanent, exterior anchorage-point requirements for scaffold tie-backs and lifeline anchors at roof level. Pad eyes welded to plates attached to roof-deck-area structural members, and capable of withstanding 5,000 pounds per person, should be treated and painted a bright yellow or orange. Permanent signs close by should explain their purpose.
Excerpt from Chapter 3 – Who Needs Fall Protection? Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition. Watch this website for more information about the publication date and how you can order your copy.


Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition #24


Tip of the Week No. 252:
Owners, engineers, and architects for buildings, bridges, dams, and other civil or industrial projects must demonstrate that construction at each stage can be done with reasonable access and reasonable fall protection for. Anchorage-strength design should minimally equal twice the maximum force of the fall system that will be attached to the anchorage.
Excerpt from Chapter 3 – Who Needs Fall Protection? Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition. Watch this website for more information about the publication date and how you can order your copy.


Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition #33


Tip of the Week 261:
Point for safety committees to consider:
Anchorage points should be 5,000 pounds minimum strength for fall protection systems that allow free falls to six feet, or alternatively, 3,000 pounds for retracting lifelines that allow free falls of two feet or less. Since no worker can tell the strength of a structural member, what should management do to increase fall safety reliability without exposing the worker to understrength anchorage points?
Excerpt from Chapter 6 – Active Fall Protection Systems. Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition. Watch this website for more information about the publication date and how you can order your copy.


Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition #7


Tip of the Week No. 235:
Estimation of the strength of structural members as possible anchorage points, particularly by workers in the field, should be avoided. One person may be able to “tug” up to twice his body weight, or 300-350 pounds. Multiple persons pulling on a line may or may not get multiple values.
The only way to field test an apparently stable anchor location is to pull it with a come-along and dynamometer. However, earlier pre-designation and marking of anchorage points by structural engineers is best.
Excerpt from Chapter 3 – Who Needs Fall Protection? Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition. Watch this website for more information about the publication date and how you can order your copy.


Tip of the Week No. 299 – 10/15/2010 – Rooftop Anchorages


Wrapping lifelines around a rooftop structure – such as pipe or air-conditioning compressor, using it as a form of rigid block or bollard – continues to be a common anchorage practice.
Safety should be enhanced by changing to a more advanced system of permanent, well-identified roof eyebolts or eyepads, locking snaphooks, and eye-spliced rope lifelines for minimum adequacy and reliability.
See “Introduction of Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 360.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 304 – 12/27/2010 – Anchorage Points


Anchorage points at waist level or below may be easier to engineer into the structure, but they are not going to be adequate, except for restraint. This means designing a system to prevent reaching the fall hazard. One example, is a calf-height horizontal lifeline, installed parallel to and 6 feet back from the leading edge of a new deck along which railings are being erected, and where all leading edge work is done in the kneeling position.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 202.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 313 – 03/14/2011 – check back weekly for a new fall protection tip!!


Anchor strength requirements should equal at least twice the dynamic load or the maximum arrest force the fall system can experience when tested in a worst-case anticipated situation.
The equipment manufacturer’s installation instructions should minimally serve as a guide for the architect/engineer to follow.
For roof tie-backs on commercial buildings, the anchorage points should offer at least the strength anticipated for feasible applications.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 58.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 314 – 03/28/2011 – Roof Anchorage Points


Responsibility for roof anchors on a new building belongs to the owner/building manager. Anchorage points or tie-backs suitable for foreseeable, exterior suspended work must be provided. And there should be no exception for new buildings when the exact locations for tie-backs and anchors can be laid out based upon the contractor’s experience and proposed work method.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 109.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


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