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Tip of the Week No. 217 – 08/25/08 – Rescue


Architects and engineers should be strongly encouraged to design or redesign manway openings with no less than a 24-inch-diameter clearance to facilitate prompt emergency retrieval. Many workers would ask for a minimum of 36 inches. An opening of 18 inches or less peomises a much more delayed rescue time, which could prove to be the fatal factor.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 264.
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Tip of the Week No. 190 – 12/24/07 – Confined Spaces


Confined Space:
A space in which vapor mists, hazardous gases, aerosols or dusts can accumulate, or where oxygen-deficient atmosphere can occur. This can happen because of its contents, location, construction or the activity that goes on within.
The determination of a hazardous environment is called a Permit-Required Confined Space. Confined Spaces are (a) large enough for bodily entrance for work: (b) restricted in means of entry or exit and (c) not designed for continuous occupancy.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pages 425-426.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.
Happy Holidays to all and a Happy and Safe New Year!


Tip of the Week No. 188 – 12/03/07 – Rescue Devices


Winches used for personnel should operate easily and be unable to “free-whell” when the crank handle is released, unless an inertial lock is incorporated.
Rescue devices, when used for emergency only, may be a single line. However, if training is done with them, then the backup lifeline must additionally be used if the fall exceeds a nominal 10 feet in the training process.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 267.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 183 – 10/29/07 – Boatswain’s Chairs


Boatswain’s chairs should be used for suspension, instead of harnesses, when openings equal or exceed 18 inches.
A harness should additionally be used for fall arrest attachment to a lifeline.
Boatswain’s chairs may be unsuitable for emergency retrieval use when a confined space is less than 18 inches wide. Proper training procedures are critical; the 4-minute limit for retrieval/stabilization should be applied.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 275.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 181 – 10/15/07 – Rescue


Using entry and retrieval systems in confined spaces could significantly minimize added dangers. A worker entering a space with a fall hazard or potentially toxic conditions (even after purging) via a ladder or suspension equipment should first be hooked up to a lifeline that is also designed to be used for a rescue. Then, because the worker already has a lifeline attached, a standby person or attendant outside of the space is able to retrieve the worker more easily should an emergency occur – without having to enter the space and becoming a possible victim.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 265.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 171 – 07/30/07 – Rescue


Millions of workers in the United States are exposed to hazards in confined spaces each year, according to NIOSH.
And each year approximately 50,000 emergency responses occur for occupational confined space incidents.
Approximately 300 occupational fatalities per year result from such incidents and about half of these victims are would-be rescuers.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 268.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No.161 – 05/14/07 – Emergency Retrieval


Emergency retrieval winches that are integral or nonintegral in self-retracting lifelines must be for emergency and training use only; they are not to be used for ordinary/regular access suspension.
A fall arrest lifeline is not necessary for emergency retrieval operations. However, for retrieval demonstration and training sessions, winches must be backed up with an additional arrest lifeline.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 275.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 157 – 04/16/07 – Rescue using a Tripod


Q. Can a single tripod be used for confined space access and lifeline support?

A. A single tripod may be used for both a vertical-entry access support and a fall arrest lifeline anchorage. Tripode attachments must be reasonably independent of each otheror, without a recognized failure mode, based upon the opinion of a Qualified Person.
Note that “reasonably independent” means that no recognized hazard exists for that situation where both loadline and lifeline could fail simultaneously.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pages 274-275.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 147 – 02/05/07 – Emergency Descent Devices


Separate, emergency descent devices are required on suspended scaffolds where power failure is anticipated – for example, on an air-powered scaffold with air-powered breathing equipment used for painting a ware tower.
Failure could expose the workers to asphyxiation from paint solvent fumes unless an emergency escape, controlled descent device is ready for use.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 148.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 105 A – 03/13/06 – Rescue


Where group protection is required, safety concepts include means of fire and smoke detection, smoke barriers, alarm systems, extinguishing systems, refuge areas and means of escape to reasonably meet the OSHA-required emergency action plan.

Self-contained emergency escape chutes capable of evacuating 30 to 40 persons per minute await adoption in the United States for building and idustrial use.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 261.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 54 A – 01/10/05 – Manway Opening


Architects and engineers should be strongly encouraged to design or redesign manway openings with no less than a 24-inch-diameter clearance to facilitate prompt emergency retrieval.
Many workers would ask for mimimum of 36 inches.
An opening of 18 inches or less promises a much more delayed rescue time, which could prove to be the fatal factor.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 264.
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Tip of the Week No. 68 A – 04/25/05 – Rescue


Always design your fall arrest system for easier postfall self-rescue, or for as short as possible suspension time.
The use of emergency responders is a difficult responsibility for those planning the work, since it is necessary to know the capabilities of the responders and have their agreement in advance to ensure prompt rescue.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pag 323.
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Tip of the Week No. 72 A – 05/23/05 – Emergency Retrieval


Emergency retrieval from vertical-entry confined spaces becomes much more difficult when the size or shape of the opening decreases below 18 inches, which is the width of a typical shoulder or pelvis.
Although aperture widths as small as 13 inches are known in industry, the range of possible rescuers for such an opening decreases dramatically.
The 4-minute rule for extrication appears to be a reasonable guidelines for training purposes to determine whether the method of entry is valid and whether a nonhuman method of accomplishing the task is feasible.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 277.
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Tip of the Week No. 90 A – 11/07/05 – Rescue


Emergency responders, including outside fire departments, should practice enough entry and retrieval rescue scenarios in confined spaces to be sure they have optimally planned for most situations.
Rescuers should also be protected from fall hazards, and have retrieval systems ready for speedy extractions in all imaginable confined space rescues.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 268.
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Tip of the Week No. 92 A – 11/21/05 – Escape


Where there is sudden danger from fire below the escape point or from the effect of a blast, angled escape away from the structure via an angeld guide cable or chute affords more personal protection than a vertical descent system.

Vertical descent devices, however, can be hooked up to these angled cables.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 260.
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Tip of the Week No. 96 – 01/16/06 – Descent Device


A device that can provide an automatically controlled rate of descent, regardless of worker or counterbalance weight, can provide more reliability than simple pulley systems.
This overspeed system combines climbing assist, fall protection and emergency escape and is addressed in the proposed OSHA 1910.270 standard for oil and gas well drilling and servicing.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 252.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 86 – 10/24/05 – Emergency Descent


Separate, emergency descent devices are required on suspended scaffolds where power failure is anticipated – for example, on an air-powered scaffold with air-powered breathing equipment used for painting a water tower.
Failure could expose the workers to asphyxiation from paint solvent fumes unless an emergency escape, controlled descent device is ready for use.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 148.
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Tip of the Week No. 68 – 05/09/05 – Confined Space


Supporting the body in an upright manner for retrieval from a confined space is achieved through attachment to a back D-ring on a full body or, possibly, a chest harness.
If the use of breathing apparatus conflicts with attachment to the back D-ring, a spreader bar yoke and two shoulder D-rings can be substituted for easier vertical retrieval.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 140.
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Tip of the Week No. 52 – 01/10/05 – Confined Space


Using entry and retrieval systems in confined spaces could significantly minimize added dangers.
A worker entering a space with a fall hazard or potentially toxic conditions (even after purging) via a ladder or suspension equipment should first be hooked up to a lifeline that is also designed to used for a rescue.
Then, because the worker already has a lifeline attached, a standby person or attendant outside of the space is able to retrieve the worker more easily should an emergency occur – without having to enter the space and becoming a possible victim.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 265.
How about ordering a copy for yourself? Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 273 – 02/22/10 – Rescue


In certain instances, such as vertical entry into a confined space, fall protection equipment also can be used initially by the work crew for emergency retrieval. When a lifeline is worn for protection against a vertical fall hazard while entering a space, trained rescuers should not have to go inside the space to hook up the victim for retrieval.
This reduces emergency response time considerably, as well as preventing rescuers from being subjected to the same harmful conditions that overcame the first workers, including the fall hazard exposure.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pages 241-242.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 282 – 05/10/10 – check back weekly for a new fall protection tip!!


The overall idea behind industrial egress is to provide every worker with a means of emergency escape from his or her workstation. Workers at heights, whose only means of access and exit are fixed ladders or moving machinery, are subject to being trapped in an emergency.
For example, this can result from fire, smoke, and fumes around overhead crane operators.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 257.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 290 – 08/02/10 – Rescue


Using entry and retrieval systems in confined spaces could significantly minimize added dangers. A worker entering a space with a fall hazard or potentially toxic conditions (even after purging) via a ladder or suspension equipment should first be hooked up to a lifeline that is also designed to be used for a rescue.
Then, becuase the worker already has a lifeline attached, a standby person or attendant outside of the space is able to retrieve the worker more easily should an emergency occur – without having to enter the space and becoming a possible victim.

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 265.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 294 – 09/13/10 – Rescue


The unclipping of an unconscious subject from his harness after a fall can only be rapidly effected if this intervention has been planned ahead and the necessary equipment and personnel are on standby. This means that no one should plan an operation necessitating the use of a harness without perfect knowledge of teh rescue conditions and implications involved. The organizer and operator must have been sufficiently trained.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 206.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 295 – 09/20/10 – Rescue


For heavier workers, the body belt is nearly impossible to fit properly between the pelvic crest and rib cage. A loose fit may result in the worker falling out of the belt as his or her center of gravity (heavier upper body) tips forward during an arrest or suspension.
Also, breathing will be very difficult as the belt constricts the diaphragm, which could result in suspension of breathing (winding) during the fall arrest, or aspyxiation while awaiting rescue.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” page 136.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 305 – 01/09/2011 – Cable Lifelines


An extension davit or other permanent structure can provide suitable anchor points for retracting cable lifelines used for fall protection. Some type of mechanical device designed to lift a victim up from vertical openings, such as a winch or block and tackle, is also needed. Manual winches may be adequate to lift victims from about 50 feet without exceeding the medically critical 3-to-4 minute time period (which is the predicted point of onset of permanent brain damage for respiratory or cardiac-arrest victims).

See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 3rd Edition” pages 265-266.
This book is an invaluable resource for every safety manager’s library. Click here to find out about ordering a copy. Order online now.


Tip of the Week No. 323 – 07/02/2012 – Industrial Egress


The overall idea behind industrial egress is to provide every worker with a means of emergency escape from his or her workstation. Workers at heights, whose only means of access and exit are via fixed ladders or moving machinery, are subject to being trapped in an emergency.
For example, this can result from fire, gases, and weather changes on chemical towers; or from fire, smoke, and fumes around overhead crane operators. Sick or injured workers in high places present a similar challenge – getting them down safely and quickly.
See Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition page 472.
Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition now available for purchase. To order your copy call 1-800-372-7775 or order online at Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition Orders.


Tip of the Week No. 345 – 12/31/2012 – Rescue


If a 4-minute limit is seen as the benchmark for stabilizing or retrieving a worker from any foreseeable hazard or personal emergency, then it becomes obvious that most rescues within that time limit will have to become the domain of trained work crews, not trained rescue workers. And as extrication becomes more difficult in the existing baffled towers or in columns with catalyst trays, so the need to keep extremely well-trained, general-purpose rescue personnel on hand increases dramatically.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition” pages 362-363.
Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition now available for purchase. To order your copy call 1-800-372-7775 or order online at Introductionto Fall Protection, 4th Edition Orders.


Tip of the Week No. 348 – 01/21/2013 – Rescue


Some self-retracting lifeline fall arrest devices have integral winches designed for the activation of emergency retrieval. The question arises whether winches can be used to raise or lower the workers as a means of access, when their primary purpose is emergency retrieval. If so, can they be used without a lifeline? The answer to both of these questions is “No”. These integral winches cannot be used for regular access because of design limitations. The use of a single line support on such devices is permitted only for emergency retrieval purposes; therefore, a back-up lifeline should be used whenever training is planned and conducted.
See “Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition” page 366.
Introduction to Fall Protection, 4th Edition now available for purchase. To order your copy call 1-800-372-7775 or order online at Introductionto Fall Protection, 4th Edition Orders.


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